In my opinion the Time Deity is oldest but I am basing this on cross-cultural study. In general the southern Indian shaktas are Sri Kula and northern ones Kali Kula. Among the oldest forms of the Goddess, in my view, would be the Star Goddess, Tara, and the Time Goddess, Kali. The Tantric Shakta Kulas are all much later developments. I am not representing this website’s view but since nobody chimed in I am throwing in my 2 cents worth. Jay Ma!